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The French regime, the first town in Canada, was formed (20,000 years a. JC) by Asian tribes who crossed the Bering Strait.
The ninth century, Icelanders expelled from Iceland settled in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and in the eleventh century, Icelanders did Greenland in the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1534, Jacques Cartier discovered the "country of Canada," but his attempt at settlement failed. Richelieu (Company of New France, 1927) and Champlain, in 1632, attempted to carry out such a settlement originated, which also failed because of the scarcity of capital and migrants.
Only when Louis XIV, Colbert advised by reuniting New France to the royal domain (1663), subjecting the Iroquois, migration and self-sufficiency of the colonies allowed to spend from 2,000 inhabitants in 1660 to 10,000 in 1680.
The war brought furs with the Iroquois (1684) and the war with the League of Augsburg peace treaty stated to restore calm. However, this would soon be disrupted by the war of Spanish Succession and the successive attempts to conquer the British colony of Acadia was ceded to them definitively by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, which followed a long period of calm . The final of the French took place in 1763 when it signed the Treaty of Paris after the Seven Years War, after which New France was forced to capitulate in Montreal (1960) and finally pass into the hands of Britain.
The old Acadia, transformed into Nova Scotia since 1713, rebelled, but the settlers were deported en masse to the colonies of North America, of Masschusetts to Georgia, and their lands distributed among the British colonists.
The British regime. Although the British imposed the English criminal law, were preserved ancient French law and, indeed, the legislative council was composed mainly of French Canadians and Catholics.
With the Treaty of Versailles (1783), which gave independence to the United States, many of the new state settlers migrated to Canada. Were created in 1784 the provinces of New Brunswick and the Island of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia added to in 1820, Cape Berton, by the constitutional act of 1791 the territory of the St. Lawrence River was divided into two: the Lower and Upper Canada. Each had their own parliamentary institutions. The introduction of machinery in Granb Britain, shortly after the treaty of Grant (1814), so peace was restored with the United States, brought the mass migration of English people to the Canadian provinces (120,000 emigrants between 1827 and 1832). The revolt of 1837 would explode as a result of colonial policy in both the Upper and the Lower Canada. In the first, the struggle of reformers focused against the family compact (union of senior officials and major retailers), while the popular party, led by Mackenzie, proposed establishing a government accountable to the people who, by failing to come to power constitutionally, would revolt, but not without tragic results (December 1837).
In Lower Canada, 120,000 French, led by Papineau, clashed with the British Protestant minority (10,000 people) who were holding the finance and trade and controlled the executive and legislative council. The refusal of London to the 92 resolutions made against the regime's excesses provoked a campaign of economic and political boycott that led to violent revolution. A new constitution, The Act of Union of 1840, incorporating part of the Principles of the rebels, whose claim was britanizar the French element, would unify Upper and Lower Canada in a united Canada, with an equal number of deputies, despite the distinct minority of the British population.
Si 1848 marks a period of prosperity due to the development of roads, the wage increase and the price of wheat, but also by the consequences of trade reciprocity treaty with the United States between 1860 and 1870 the British government was faced to the crisis posed by the Maritime Provinces, which sought to unite politically to ensure the expansion of their markets, and London would agree eventually.
The Canadian confederation. In 1867 was created by uniting the four provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebuec), the Confederation of Canada. In this new state was recognized the internal autonomy, official use of English and French, and the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces.
Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territories joined Confederation in 1870, while the territories of the Rockies did in 1871, and Prince Edward Island in 1873. Since 1867 there was a Conservative prime ministry (Macdonald), who headed its activity towards the railways and industry, although the basis of the country remained in agriculture.
W. Laurier his place with a liberal ministry autonomist court, got rid of the British treaties and control immigration, and in 1905, created Alberta and Saskatchewan. By participating in the First World War, Canada became an international power range. The support of the Agrarian Party and progressive, established after the war, gave the victory to the Liberal Party in the 1921 elections. In 1926 he acknowledged the full political independence from Canada, ratified by the Statute of Westminster in 1931. In 1929, the global crisis completely paralyzed the country's development, and in 1930 the Conservatives returned to power until 1935.
During the Second World War, Canada became a huge barn of Great Britain, in 1949, the Canadian Confederation in Newfoundland is huge. In 1957 he came to power the Conservative Party, headed by JG Diefenbaker, who was defeated in 1963 by Lester Pearson's Liberals, again overcome, the latter in 1965. E. Trudeau swapped in 1968, to Pearson. The Liberals had to deal with Quebec nationalism supported by France. Bilingualism was introduced in the state apparatus, but the Quebec Liberation Front, and the Parti Quebecois continued to agitate, the first with abduction (J. Cross, British trade commissioner, and P. Laporte, Québec's Minister of Labor, 1970) and the second winning 7 seats in the provincial legislatures in 1970. Laporte's death (October 1970), following the crackdown from abduction (400 arrests and use of torture), further aggravating the situation. The legislation did not change the imbalance between the two main communities (60 percent English, 27 percent French in 1963). For its part, the Indians (about 350,000) opposed the liquidation of its "special status" for not representing the immediate integration to the economic mainstream. The economic difficulties that have arisen since 1971 by the American policy towards Canada (Canadian import surcharge), aggravated unemployment and accelerated the search for its own foreign policy (relations with China, 1971-1973; vistit exchange with Russia , 1971-1972; away from NATO and announced a workforce reduction, 1969-1972; increased trade with CEE; interventions in Latin America - Brazil - Africa - cooperative program with several states: Morocco, Algeria, etc.) .
Relations with the United States, have deteriorated sharply between 1969 and 1970, reaching a certain distinction in 1971. in 1972, the Liberals lost 47 are due to progress in unemployment, rising prices, the heavy tax burden and hostility to bilingualism anglofona, taking to support the New Democratic Party (NPD) to form a new government (November 1972) which had to brake decentralization, conservative chauvinism meet and develop their own oil policy.
Provincial elections in 1976 gave victory to the Parti Québécois, led by Levesque, which further accentuated the internal contradictions of the country, although in 1980 he lost the referendum on the full sovereignty of Quebec.
In 1979, Trudeau had to grow from the conservative leader Jose Clark, but regained it in 1980, and by the 1982 constitution, finally broke through the little dependence that bound him to the British parliament.